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Dynamic performance

Speed and overload

Up to the rated torque, the running speed of a PAD is directly given by the frequency of the input signal. Speed (in degrees per second) follows the relationship:


NPAD: Number of teeth on the shaft of the PAD

f: Frequency of the input signals

Above the rated torque, at some point the force generated by the actuators pressing ring and shaft together will not be sufficient to maintain position. The contact point will be forced to move rapidly, resulting in a sudden motion of the shaft, or in other words, a tooth will “jump”.

The PAD is protected against overload, so this jump will not affect reliability. However, unless this jump is recorded and compensated for, the open-loop position information will be lost.

Heat generation

Heat generation in a PAD is proportional to speed, regardless of the load. This means that a PAD doesn’t consume any power when holding a load. On the other hand, a PAD can heat-up significantly when operated at high frequency, even without a load.

Specifications indicate a maximum continuous speed, which corresponds to the speed that will cause the PAD to reach its maximum operating temperature in laboratory conditions (room temperature, natural convection). Depending on the environmental conditions (ambient temperature, cooling…) this speed can be increased or decreased. It is advisable to monitor temperature in actual conditions when designing the application.

Because of the thermal inertia of the system, it is possible to drive the PAD well above the maximum continuous speed for a short duration.

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